Sunday, January 18, 2015

LIST of NORSE ARTIFACTS in NORTH AMERICA

NORSE
 and OTHER EUROPEANS
in ANCIENT AMERICA
By
FRODE OMDAHL
LARRY STROUD
MYRON PAINE, Ph. D.
December 27, 2005
.
The hunters showed themselves
at the north, at the east,
at the south, at the west.
MAALAN AARUM (a.k.a.), 3:6
.
NOTE TO READER
.
This list of evidence that Europeans and Americans have a long history of contact was originally presented at 
the Conference on Ancient America, 
October 7, 8, 9, 
2005 at Big Bay Michigan. 

Since then the format was changed to break out the evidence that can be attributed to Ancient Norse, the Alban cultures, and the Mediterranean cultures.
.
The Ancient Norse evidence is defined as any evidence indicating Norse Culture before 535, the explosion of Krakatoa. The rune stones in the Arkansas River valley fall into that era.
.
The Alban classification includes all of the evidence that may have come from Ireland and the British Isles. Albans, Welsh and Celtic are major peoples who lived in that area, but their close interrelationships created complications for dividing the evidence into separate cultures. The ancient evidence was not separated.
.
In the same manner, evidence associated with the Phoenicians, Iberians, Libyans, Egyptians, Hebrews and others has been grouped under the Mediterranean heading.
.
The assignment of evidence to a particular culture is made more difficult because the history of the relationships of the sea peoples around Europe is vague. Sea people, because of their environment, are rovers and traders. Some of the evidence found in America indicates that the sea people may have learned from each other. Thus a Roman carving found in America may have been carried by an Alban who sailed on both Phoenician ships (to and from Alba) and Norse ships (To America) Pytheas, a Greek in 330 BC, did not make it to America, but he wrote about such a trip as far as Iceland.
.
The list was originally planned to show only evidence for Norse in Ancient America. Reider T. Sherwin wrote in volume four of the Viking and the Red Man that “The Lenape language is Old Norse.” So, the list is limited to only the evidence in the area of North America occupied by the Lenape speaking people. Two thirds of North America, central and south America is not included. This list may represent only one ninth (1/9) of the evidence that Europeans were in Ancient America.
.
The current estimate is that there is still about five (5) times the evidence than what is included in this list. Please communicate remarks and especially sources of evidence not yet listed via the comments.
-  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  - 
.
TRACKS of NORSE in AMERICA
NORSE TRACKS in SOIL
Tuesday, December 27, 2005
.
Page 1 of 39
CANAL
.
     MASSACHUSETTS, Boston
     Horsford, 1898, Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
          Eben Horsford found an old canal he thought
          was Norse.
.
CAVE
.     Macmillan
          Macmillan investigated a cave known as the
          Viking cave.
.
DAMS
.
      MASSACHUSETTS, Boston
      Horsford, 1898
           Horsford found Norse dams along the 
           Charles River, 1893
.
FOUNDATIONS
.
     LABRADOR, Nakvak [Mak=leisure, Vakt=duty]
     Grenfell, 1909, Holand, 1956, p. 153.
          " ...remains of old stone houses [tell of] truth
          in [Tunnits]
.
     LABRADOR, Nalliak Cove 
     [Mal=paint, Aki=land area]
     Fitzhugh 1972?, Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
          Fitzhugh found twenty-six (26) Norse                           foundations.
.
     LABRADOR, Sculphin Island
     Mallery, 1946-50, Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
           Twelve (12) foundations of Norse houses
            were found.
.
     MASSACHUSETTS, Boston
     Horsford, Eben and Conelia, 1898
           Eben and Cornelia each found a Norse house.

    MASSACHUSETTS-Hyannis
    Pohl, 1952, Thompson. AA#6, 1994
         Pohl found a foundation for a Norse house.
.
   NEWFOUNDLAND
   Mallery, 1946-50 Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
        Mallery identified fourteen (14) house sites.
.
    NEWFOUNDLAND, L'anse Aux Meadows
   Ingstad, 1846, Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
        Ingstad found eight (8) Norse foundations.
.
    NEWFOUNDLAND, Sop's Island 
    [sopp = mushroom]
    Mallery, 1946-60, Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
         Mallerery found many foundations of
         Norse houses.
.
IRON FORGES
.
     ILLINOIS, Madison
          Indiana Republican Banner, 1835, 
         Anderson, AA#6 p. 17
              The newspaper reported on an Iron Forge.

     NEWFOUNDLAND, L'anse Aux Meadows
          Ingstad, 1964, Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
               Ingstad found iron forges at L’anse 
               aux meadows.

     OHIO, Allyn Mound, Franklin
          Mallery, 1951, p. 23 f.
               "Exterior of the Kiln type smelting furnace."                [Fig. 2-12]

     OHIO, Haskins Mound.
          Mallery, 1951, p. 24 f.
               "Drawing of four prehistoric iron smelting                     furnaces.."

     OHIO, Spruce Hill
           Foster, 1811, Mallery 1951, p, 38, 
           Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
                 "Within the area [Spruce Hill] there are
                   about thirty furnaces .."
           Shoemaker, 1910, Mallery, 1951, p. 7 f.
                  "Uncovering this Nordic type hearth pit
                  was only the beginning."

      ROANOKE VALLEY
            Howe, Mallery, 1946-50, Thompson, 1994,
            AA#6, p. 13
                 Howe found sixteen (16) iron forges
                 in Roanoke Valley.

LOCK
      MASSACHUSETTS, Boston
            Horsford, 1989, Thompson, 1994, 
           AA#6, p. 13
                 Horsford found the remains of a ship lock.

MOUND, BURIAL
      MASSACHETTS, 
            Sheepscott, Bronsted, 1950, Boland, 
            Anderson, 1994,
                 Bronsted thought that the burial mounds
                 were similar to Norse.

PALISADES
      MASSACHUSETTS, Hyannia
           Pohl, 1952, Thompson, 1994, AA#6, p. 13
                 Pohl found remains of Palisades.

SHELLS
      NEW ENGLAND
           Science Magazine, Anderson, 1994,
          AA#6 p. 18
                Small snail from North Sea found dated to                   11th century.

 WHARVES
      MASSACHUSETTS, Boston
           Horsford, 1898
               Horsford found Norse wharves along
               the Charles River.
NORSE TRACKS of BELIEF

COUNCIL = ALTHING
     GOVERNMENT
          Maalan Aarum, Chap. IV, 1836
                 Lenape councils and Norse Althings
                  were similar.

MEDICINE
     HERB WOMEN
           Parker, 1994
                 Lenape and Norse cultures had women
                 with herbal skills.

PROCEDURES
      Thomas, 1698, Meyers, 1912, p. 323, 
       Weslager, 1973, p. 14
             [Lenape were] "as able Doctors ..as any
             in Europe."

MYTH
     GLUSKAP and MALSUM
            Bierlein, 1994, p. 61
                  Gluskap and Malsum duel in similar way
                   as in Norse mythology.

NAMES
     Sherwin.1940
          Gluskap, Lenape hero is Norse Glusfadir, 
           known as Odin.
     Spencer, 1955, Bierlein, 1994, p. 46.
           " ..[Norse] and Lenape evil [person] 
           possess..same name.

ORIGIN STORIES INCLUDED:

     ANIMALS
          Spencer, 1955, Bierlein, 1994, p. 45.
               "Like Odin, [Glooskap] trained two birds to
                bring ..news."

     MAN,WOMAN
         Bierlein, 1994, p. 45.
              "Norse ..creation of man from an ash tree ..                 [has] American parallel.

     SPARK, (stars)
            Manitonquat, 1994, p. 13.
                   Lenape and Norse stories included spark
                 (star) maker.

    TREE of life, (lights)
         Manitonquat,, 1994, p. 17.
               Lenape and Norse origin stories had a
               "sacred tree."

     WORLD
           Bierlein, 1994, p. 60. Pare xxx
                 "Tirawa [like Odin] appointed ..
                East, West, North and South."


     SKY
         BEAR
              Fell, 1977, p. 279
                    Americans and Europeans believed big
                    dipper was a bear.

        CALENDAR, primstav
                Bragdon, 1996, p. 124.
                     " ..first month ..part of April & pt. of                            May ,," 
                   Primstav starts April 14.

              New England, 
                   Verrazzano, Barron, ABC, p 61.
                        "Verrazzano wrote ..that natives                                   ,,sowed at first rising of Pleiades"

NORSE TRACKS of BLOOD

ANIMALS

      CAT
      Ancient America Magaine
          An unique cat, the Norway cat, also lived in America.

HORSE
     North Carolina Ocracole Island, 
             Hope, 1981, Anderson, 1994, AA#6, p. 18
                  "..they are descendants of Norse Horses"

BEHAVIOR

     WOMEN
           New York, 
                Van Dere Donck, 1643
                      Van Der Donck thought American
                       women "differed little"

BLOND HAIR
     BAFFIN ISLAND
          Thompson, 1994, AA#6, p. 13
                Reports of fair hair on Baffin Island date                     from the 1500.

     LABRADOR
           Thampson, 1994, AA#6, p. 13
                The Jesuits reported fair haired people in                      Labrador in 1600s

      MASSACHUSETS, Stockbridge
           Anderson, 1994, AA#6,p. 15
           "Cornhair" terrorized the Stockbridge 
           Tribe c 1600

      NEWFOUNDLAND
             Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
                   The Beotuck of Newfoundland were                            white and fair haired.

      QUEBEC, West of James Bay.
            Funk, 1940, Sherwin, 1940, p.
                 "Tribe of 'white Indians' ..with 'fair hair                        and grey eyes' [on] west shore."

BLOOD TYPE
      O BLOOD
           Boyd, Cooke, 1973, p.
                 "..Asian blood type is B. Indians run an                         amazing 100% O blood".

BONES
      QUEBEC. Ungava,
            Thomas Lee, 1968
                 Two of five skeletons at Pamiok were                           judged to be European.

DNA
      HAPLOGROUP X
             Greenberg and Malhi, 2001
                    Haplogroup X map shows European                             entry via Hudson Bay.

PHYSICAL FEATURES
      MEN
           NEW YORK, 
                Mallery, 1950, Thompson, 1994, 
               AA#6,p. 13
                    Mallery went on quest (for Norse
                    artifacts) after seeing Americans like
                   Swedes.

NORSE TRACKS of THINGS

BONE
      LATITUDE DEVICES
           QUEBEC. Ottawa, 
                 Canada Art Museum, 2005
                       Several latitude devices were
                       on exhibit.

FIBER
      HAIR, Brown bear, 
           Smithsonian, 2000
                 Brown bear hair was found in Norse
                 Greenland weavings.

       BUFFALO, 
          Smithsonian, 2000
               Buffalo Hair was found in Norse Greenland
               weaving.

SKIN BOATS
     NORWAY, 
           Bishop Mangnus, 1505, Holand, 1940. p. 147f.
                Skin boats on wall were captured by                             Harkon (IV?) beyond Greenland.

FRUIT
     APPLES
          Bardsson, c1360, Holand, 1956, p. 114.
                "..lower down grew the best of fruits                               ...apples and good."

GLASS BEADS
       MASSACHUSETTS
            Glass beads were found in pre-contact sites

       OHIO, Cincinnati
             Glass beads were found in pre-contact                          Shawnee sites.

     QUEBEC, Ungava, 
             Plummet
                  Plummet found 50 glass beads
                  from two locations

BOTTLE
     Priest, 1800s
     Priest reported on a Norse glass bottle.

HORN, DRINKING
     ILLINOIS, waukegan, 
          1317, 1952,. Anderson, 1994, AA#6 p. 18
               This drinking horn was found at a depth
               of thirty (30) inches.

IVORY
      FISH LURE
          QUEBEC. Ottawa, Canada Art Museum, 2005
                 Ivory fish about four inches long similar
                 to fish on primstavs

METAL
     ADZE
           SA, Prince Albert, 
                Brondsted, Holand, 1956, p. 205.
                     "two adze-like implements found deep
                      in ground."

ARM RING
     RHODE ISLAND, Newport, 
          Hammond, Wick, 1911, Holand, 1959, 
          p. 267.Lil
                  ",,like the arm rings for the gentry of the
                   Middle Ages to wear."

AXE
     MASSACHUSETTS. Plymouth ,
          Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
              Norse ax with tinfinaa script was found near
              Plymouth,

      MIICHIGAN, Republic, 1878: 
           Stafford, c1880, Holand, 1956, p. 202-204
          This ax is a weapon. Handle came from 
           the far north.

     MINNESOTA, Alexandria: 
          Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                An ax was found near Alexandria MN.

     MINNESOTA, Brandon, 
         Jensen, 1930, Holand, 1940, p. 225 f
               Mr. Nelson "Had received it from an Indian                  far back.."

     MINNESOTA, Copper Falls, 
             Raymond, Anderson, 1994, A.A.#6 p. 16.
                  This axe found in 1883 is a weapon.

     MINNESOTA, Cormorant Lake 
          Holand, 1956, p, 137.
                A Norse ax was found in Cormorant Lake.

     MINNESOTA, Erdahl, 
           Holand, 1940, p. 221f
                 "The axe ..is ..practically identical with St.
                   Olaf's axe."

      MINNESOTA, Khokia: 
            Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                 A Norse ax was found near Khokio, MN

     MINNESOTA, Milan: 
            Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                 A Norse ax was found near Milan, MN

     MINNESOTA, Mora: 
            Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                 A Norse ax was found near Mora, MN

     MINNESOTA, Norway Lake,
           Skaalrud, 1908, Holand, 1940, p. 231f
"              ..an axe ..shows a .. similarity [with axes] in                 our [Danish] museum."

     MINNESOTA, Sundibung, 
          Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                A Norse ax was found near Sundibung, MN

    MINNESOTA, Thief River Falls, 
        Brandvold. 1919. Holand, 1940, p. 239 f.
             Oslo museum curator stated, "..axes ..are                      closely related."

     NEWFOUNDLAND
         Mallery, 1946-50, Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
               Mallery found a Norse ax on Sop's Island.

          NOVA SCOTIA, Cole Harbor:: 
              Holand, 1956 p. 93, Anderson, 
             A.A. #6, p. 16.
                   A 11th cent. Norse ax was found in 1880

          OHIO, Haskins Mound, 
                  Mallery, 1951, p. 25.
                    "An axe was found in this [Celtic]                                 furnace.

      ONTARIO  
           Branrford Thompson, Anderson, 1994,
          A.A. #6, p. 16.
                A Norse ax was found near Brantford, Ont
.
      ONTARIO, Breadmore: 
            Holand, 1956, p.132.
                The axe was part of Norse arms found near
                 Lake Nipigon.
                 [The axe, a broken sword, and a firesteel
                 most likely the equipment of Norwegian
                 Prince Paul Knutson.  A stanza of the
                 Lenape Maalan Aarum tells of his death.]

     ONTARIO
           Priest, 1800s, Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
                 Priest reported the find of a Norse ax.

    QUEBEC, 
         Thomas Lee, 1968
               A Norse ax was found at Pamiok.

BOAT HOOK
      MINNESOTA,  Lake Lakota, 
           Holand, 1956, p. 204.
                 "..boat hook, was found ..mile from this
                  waterway..

BOAT RIVETS
     NEWFOUNDLAND, Canada: 
           Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                 Norse boat rivets were found in                                    Newfoundland.
     PENNSYLVANIA
          Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                Norse boat rivets were found in                                     Pennsylvania

     VIRGINIA: 
          Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                 Norse boat rivets were found in Virginia

BRONZE, knives
      MAINE, Arsenault. 2005
      An ancient bronze dagger was found on the                 Kennebec River.

QUEBEC, UNGAVA 
      Plummet
           A 1121 bronze knive was found in Ungava

CAST IRON
      Priest
           Priest reported the find of a large chunk of                    ancient cast iron.

CAULKING TOOL
     VIRGINIA: 
           Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                  A Norse style caulking tool has been                              found in Virginia.

CHISEL
     NEWFOUNDLAND, Canada: 
           Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                A ancient chisel has been found. in
                Newfoundland.

COINS
     MAINE, 1962, 
         Anderson, 1994, AA#6 p. 17 Arsenault, 2005
               The coin was from the reign of Olaf III,
                (1066-93)
     MAINE, Blue Hill Bay, 
         Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
               A 11tb century Norse coin was found at 
               Blue Hill Bay., ME

FIRE STEEL
     MINNESOTA, Climax, 
          Jevning, 1872 Holand, 1956, p 137 & 191.
               Found buried two feet deep in unplowed
               ground by settler.

    MINNESOTA, Cormorant Lake, 
         Holand, 1956, p. 137.
              This fire steel was found in 1870 by first
              white men in area.

     MINNESOTA. Detroit Lakes: 
          Holand, 1956, p. 196.
                Fire steel was found in area not yet settled
                by white men.

HALBERD
      MINNSOTA, Wells.
             Holand, 1956 p. 137
                  The halberd was for ceremonial use.

      MINNESOTA, Alexandria,
             Henderson, 1938, Holand, 1956, p. 137.&107
                  This halberd was three feet under the roots
                  of a tree.

      MINNESOTA, Crookston, 
             Estenson, 1945, Holand, p. 137 & 197.
                   This halberd was found in 1871 along the
                    Red River.

HANDLE
      Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
            An iron handle was found.

HOOK
      MINNESOTA, Holand, 1956, p. 138
          "Other 14th century implements found in
          western MN."

    VIRGINIA, 
          Thomson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                An ancient iron hook has been found.


METAL
      POT
          GEORGIA. 
               Hambershem, Thompson, Anderson, 1994,                 A.A. #6, p. 16.
                   An ancient bronze cooking pot has been                      found in GEORGIA.

    OHIO, Spruce Hill
            Mallery, 1951, p. 3f.
                 ".. These [thousands of] copper tools were                    cast by expert[s].."

SCRIBER
      Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
              An ancient scriber has been found.

SHIELD HANDLE
      ONTARIO, Breadmore, 
           Holand, 1956, p. 132
                 Shield handle was part of Norse arms at                        Lake Nipigon.

SPEAR POINTS
      MINNESOTA,
           Holand, 1956, 138.
                  "Other 14th century implements found in                      western MINNESOTA,"

      WISCONSIN: 
            Thompson, Anderson, 1994, A.A. #6, p. 16.
                  A Norse spear point was found in                                 Wisconsin.

SWORD
      LABRADOR, 
         Hopedale, English, 1954, Holand, 1956, p. 153.
               " ...medieval Greenland sword was found                    not far [away].

    MINNESOTA, Ulen, 
          Strand, Holand, 1940
          Strand found the rusty sword after plowing                   deeper.

    ONTARIO, Breadmore, 
         Holand, 1956 p. 132.
             Sword was part of Norse weapons near
             Lake Nipigon.

WORKED IRON
        Howe, 1950, Thompson, 1994, AA#6,p. 13
        Howe collected over four hundred (400) pounds         of worked  iron.

       OHIO, 
             Hyde, 1962
                   Small metal objects were found in pre-                        contact Shawnee sites.

PICTURES
      CROSS, St. Ninian's
             QUEBEC, Civ. Of Man, Ottawa, 2005
                  Modern Lenape drew a St. Ninian's Cross

     HOUSE
          Kane, 1851-56, Canada Art Museum, 2005
               Kane's Interior of Winter Lodge could be                      Norse

     TURKEYS
           Schleswig, c1280, Holand, 1956, p. 110.
                "... eight life-like turkeys which are painted                  on the wall ..."

STONE, ALTAR     
     MINNESOTA, Sauk Lake, Holand, 1956, p. 193.
           "They ..added ..details to make .. rock seem                   like..a church

ARROWHEAD
     Ingstad
          An American arrowhead was found in                         Greenland.

     Paine, 2005
           Newer stone arrowheads were similar to metal            arrowheads.

BEACONS
      QUEBEC. Ungava, 
          Thomas Lee, 1968
                Stone beacons span Ungava Peninsula.

CHI`RHO MARKS
     CONNECTICUT, Groton, 
           Whitehall, Barron, ABC, 1998m p. 54
                 Whitehall & Barron found a Christogram                    and several Chi-Rhos.

COAL
     Ingstad
          Anthracite coal from Rhode Island was found             in Greenland.

DUCK SHELTERS
      QUEBEC, Ungava, 
          Thomas Lee, 1968
                Duck shelters for elder down were found
                 on Ungava

GRAVE, marker
     CONNECTICUT, 
          Williamantic. The Chronicle, 1955, Bass, 1994,
          AA#6, p.
                An outline of a Norse grave looks like a                       ship in Connecticut.

WASHINGTON, Clallarn Tribe,
      Opsjon, 1919, Anderson, 1994, AA#6,p. 14
           Fight between 31 Norse and Clallarns occurred            in 1010.

HAMMER OF THOR
     QUEBEC. Ungava, Thomas Lee, 1968
         A stone monument like Thor's Hammer stands            in Ungava.
             [More recent hypothesis is that the "monuments" were towers                                supporting a supply hut for the copper miners.  The balancing stones for
             this "monument" are still in place on top of the monument, but the
             wooden hut has long ago rotted away."]

HEAD
     QUEBEC
           Anderson, 1994, AA#6, p. 17
                "A more recent find had been an eight inch                    sandstone head..”

     QUEBEC. Ottawa, Canada Art Museum, 2005,                   Photo, Wahlgren, 1986
                 Head in helmet with nose guard is similar                   to Wahlgren photo on p. 49

LONG HOUSE
      QUEBEC. Ungava, 
            Thomas Lee, 1958
                   Twelve (12) foundations for long houses                       found in Ungava

MOORING HOLE
      IOWA, 
           Anderson, AA#6, p. 17
                "..typical mooring stones have been found                   in western Iowa.
"
      MINNESOTA,Kensington, 
            Holand, 1956, p, 136.
                The mooring hole was found on 'island'                       with rune stone.

      MINNESOTA, Lake Park: 
              Holand, 1956, p. 136.
                     The 7 1/4" deep round hole is drilled into                      a large rock.

    MINNESOTA, 
             Holand, 1956, p, 139.
                    Nine (9) other mooring holes found along                     route of travel.

     NORTH DAKOTA, 
          report 19, Anderson, AA#6, p. 17
"               .. Records a number of possible mooring                         stones .

     OBELISK
           MAINE, 
                Arsenault, 2005
                    A stone obelisk was found on the                                 Kennebec River, ME.

     PETROGLYPHS
          ONTARIO, Petersborough,
                 Spiro, Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 35
                       "..carvings are virtually identical [to                              those] along Sweden's coast."

     PILLARS
           NORTH DAKOTA
                Venendrye, Kahn, 1749, Holand, 1956,
                 p. 263.
                        "They [Frenchmen] found [pillars] in                             one place in the woods."
     POT, steatite
          LABRADOR, 
               Bird, Thompson, 1994, AA#6 p. 13
                    Junius Bird found steatite pots in                                   Labrador.

     RUNE STONE
            DC, Washington, Potomac,
                   Chicago Tribune 1867, Raffinnison
                         "..translation given follows common
                         formula ..in late Medieval Iceland."

          MASSACHUSETTS, Martha's Vineyard, 
                 Priest, 1922, Holand, 1956, p. 268.
                       "This is.. spelling of Thollef, common                                Norwegian name.

               Mallery, 1951, p. 9, fig. 1-4
                     "Rune Stone at entrance to Viking Grave                      on Spruce Hill."

         MAN, Sandy Hook, 
              Signatovitch, 1933,Anderson, 1994, AA#6
                     Stone with three line inscription                                    photographed before stolen.

            Allardyce, 1933, Anderson, 1994, AA#6
                 Twenty Runes on 3'x3'x5' stone were                             found, then lost by museum.

        MAINE, Phippsburg, Spirit Pond #1:
               Haugan, 1972, eight others,
               Spirit Pond #1 shows Vinland and Hoop.

               Spirit Pond #2 has ten runes, spelling                            "Norfolk sja."

              Spirit Pond #3 has 16 lines of runes.


             Spirit Pond #4 has a cross on one side,
             "VIN" on other.

      MINNESOTA, Kensington,:
              Holand, 1956, Cibley, 1994, Carlson, 1998
                  The Kensington rune stone dates from                         1362

     NORTH DAKOTA,
          Venendrye, Kahn, 1749, Holand, 1956, p. 263
                "Pillar ..stone ..was covered ..with unknown
                  characters.".

     RHODE ISLAND, Greenwich (Narragansett),
            Devine, Hardie, 1986, Carlson,
                  "The marks are clearly runes."

     RHODE ISLAND, Newport, tower, 
            Landsverk, 1974, 3 others, Carlson, 1998
                 "They [the marks] are consistent with short                   twig runes."

     SPINDLE WHORL
          Ingstad
               A spindle whorl was found at L'anse Aux                    Meadows.

     TABLET
          TENNESSEE, 
               Anderson, AA#6, p. 17
                    "..the ..Thruston Tablet" bears Viking-                           like figures."

        WEST VIRGINIA, Moundville, 
               Pohl, 1952. Anderson, AA#6, p. 17
                    "Two small tablets ..bear both a cross and                     "Thor's Hammer."

      TIFINAG ENGRAVINGS
            ONTARIO, Petersborough, 
                  Fell, 1982
                       "America's first recorded sea battle."

     TOWER
           RHODE ISLAND, Newport,
                Plowden, 1960, Holand, 1956, 
                Chap. XVIII-XXI.

                Among items listed in 1630 is "a round                          stone tower."
                 [The evidence is that this Norse Church
                  had been burned during the WASP 1612
                  voyage to destroy Catholic Churches.]

      WHETSTONE,
             MINNESOTA, Fish Lake, 2011
                   Steve Hilgren, personal communications.
                        Steve found a cracked whetstone.
                        The whetstone had an iron core.

             MINNESOTA, Alexandria, 2011
                   Steve Hilgren, personal communications.
                         Steve determined that the whetstone,
                         which was found under the                                           Kensington Rune Stone, also had a
                         metal core.

            OTTAWA, Canada,
                   Patricia Sutherland, 2012
                         Patricia reported that 30 whetstones
                         have been collected by Canadian
                         museums.

            SOUTH DAKOTA, Wilmot
                  Rand McNally RoadAtlas, 2011
                        One of South Dakota's two Whetstone
                         Rivers is near Wilmot.  Wilmot means
                         "Everybody is Welcome."

            SOUTH DAKOTA, Geddes,
                 State Map, 2013.
                       The second of South Dakota's two
                        Whetstone Rivers is on the west bank                            of the Missouri, opposite Geddes, SD.
                         [Other evidence, including the                                       Verendrye stone and towers, a                                      defensive earthworks west of the                                  Missouri, the Crow Creek
                         Massacre, and the Mandan structures
                         in North Dakota all contribute to the
                         belief that Norse were on the
                        Missouri.]

WOOD
     BOAT
          RHODE ISLANE, Newport,
                 Hammond, Wick, 1911, Holand, 1959,
                 p. 267.Lil
                        "The boat unearthed agreed closely                                  ...with the Viking boat.".

CALENDAR, primstav
      McFaddin, 1990
            Commanda, a Lenape, exhibits a 
            Norwegian Primstav

CHESTS
      GREENLAND, 
           Irwin, 1980 Pane xxx
                 " ..archaeologists found thirty-two                                   ..chests.." with American wood.

CROSS
        MICMAC,
               Holand, 1956, p. 93.
                    Micmacs wore crosses received from                           ancestors.

DOLL
       BF, 
            Michigan State, 1978, Anderson, 1994,
            AA#6 p. 18

            Two inch doll of 13th on Baffin Island
            has 13th century origin.

EARSPOOLS
       TENNESSEE, Bat Creek, 1889, 
            Thomas, Gordon, 1972, McCulloch, 1998,
                 "..earspools, similar to those worn by the                        Etowah figures.
"
FIGURINE
     MASSACHESETTS, Deerfield,
     Paine, 2003
          Two corn husk small figurines are displayed.
     Plummet
         A thumb size wooden figurine was found.

SLEEVES
     UNGAVA
             Plummet
                   Plummet found two (2) wooden sleeves                        (handles) for metal tools

SPOONS
     QUEBEC. Ottawa, Civ. Of Man. Ottawa, 2005
           Two wooden spoons similar Ingstad's photos

WINDER
     OHIO, Ft. Ancient, Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 36
            Wool winder in Oslo is similar to wool winder              at Fort Ancient.


NORSE TRACKS of WORDS

HISTORY
      BISHOP GNUPSON
           Holand, 1956, Chap. XI.
                Bishop Gnupson went to America in 1121.

      BISHOP ODDSON
           Oddson, 1362. Holand, 1956, p. 125.
                 "Inhabitants of Greenland ... turned to                          people of America.."

      DDe BREMAN, Adam
           De BREMAN, 1070, Holland, 1956, Chap. X
                De Breman wrote about Vinland.

FURS
      Walkendorff, c1511, Winge, 1902, Holand, 1956,        p. 110.
            The furs "must have come from the American              mainland.

GINNUNGAGAP
      Hudson Strait: Kings Mirror, c1250, Holand,               1956, p. 100
             The Kings Mirror gives Ginnungagap's                         location.

INVENTIO FORTUNATAE
      Lynn, 1360, Mercator, various others
           The author wrote about 4000 Norse going
            to America.

LABRADOR
      Boas, Holand, 1956, p. 128
             In the past] "... people bigger than the Eskimo              lived there."

     Gathorn-Hardy, 1921, Holand, 1956, p. 138.
          "Tunnit are ... treated by traditions as ... not                 Eskimo.

      Grenfell, 1909, Holand, 1956, p. 153.
           "... large race ... called Tunnit ... used to be on              this coast.

      Tunes, 1656, Rochefort, Holand, 1956, p. 128
            "One kind [of two natives] was tall ..well built             and of fair [skin.

MARKLAND SHIP
      Icelandic annals, 1347, Holand, 1956, p. 109,
           "This was probably the first vessel from                        Markland to arrive ..."

HISTORY
     NORSE KINGS
          Magnus, Stromsted, Anderson, 1994, 
          AA#6,p. 15, Thompson, p.
               King Harkon IV sailed to Merica in 1250                    and 1260

        Stromsted, Anderson, 1994, AA#6,p. 15
             King Olaf II sailed to Merica in 1026

        Stromsted, Anderson, 1994, AA#6,p. 15,                     Thompson, p. 24
              King Harold III sailed to Merica in 1050
              or 1065.

NORUMBEGA
      Crignon, 1539, Holand, 1956, p. 254.
            "This land is called Norumbega by the                            natives."

LANGUAGE
LENAPE/NORSE
     Stromstead, 1974
          Stromstead wrote about Norse Place names.

BLOOMFIELD
     Paine,2005
          Lenape words used by Bloomfield include
          Norse words.

BOAS
     Herskovits, 1962
            Boas wrote that languages can be transmitted               to cultures.

GROTIUS
      Grotius, 1625
            Grotius advocated the Americans had Norse                 language.

NORSE
      RHODE ISLAND, 
           Williams,1644,Sherwin, 1940
                  Williams said that Lenape spoke Old 
                   and ancient Norse.

PRONOUN TABLE, Icelandic
     Outlines of Grammer, from Old Norse dictionary,        now removed
           Iceland Table shows that Lenape pronouns are            Norse.

SHERWIN
      The Viking and the Red Man, 1940, 42, 44,
      46, 48, 50, 52, 54
           Sherwin made 30,000 comparisons of Lenape              & Norse words.

VUANGHAN
        Vuanghan
             Vuasghan wrote supporting Sherwin's                           comparisons

LAW CODE
     GOVERNMENT
          LLEWELLYN and Hoebel, 1941
               Cheyenne and Iceland law codes were                           similar.

MAPS
     EASTERN AMERICA
           Verrazzano, 1524
                  Verrazzano wrote in 1524 that he stayed
                   at a Norman Villa

     LONG ISLAND
          Resen, 1605, Holand, 1956, pp. 140,
               Resen's "Iceland" vaguely resembles
                Long Island

     NORTH ATLANTIC, 
     1424, Clavus, Thompson, 1994, AA#6, p. 22
          Norway may have the map outline of Alaska.

     1482, Koft,, Thompson, 1994, AA#6, p. 22
           Koft map of 1482 showed a "Ventheland"

     VINLAND
           Jacobi, Thompson, 1994, AA#6, p. 20
                Jacobi also showed Promontorium
                Winlandiae

NEWFOUNDLAND, 
     Benhaim, 1492, Hapgood, 1966, p 58
          Benaim's map of St. Lawrence was made                      before Columbus returned.

     Resen, 1605, Holand, 1956, pp. 146 & 270.,
            Newer map copied from an older source.

     Stefansson, 1950, Holand, 1956, pp. 146 & 270.
           "..probably [one of the] earliest                                        ..representations of America."

WORLD
      1350, Higden, Thompson, 1994, AA#6, p. 21
            Higden's map of 1350 showed a "Winland"

      1475. Lubeck, Thompson, 1994, AA#6, p. 21
           Lubeck map of 1475 shows "Vinlad"

      1569. Mercator, Chapman, AA#6 p.9
            Mercator'x world map of 1569 showed                         Norumbege;.

NAMES
     BAY, James Bay
       "Hanna" on modern maps, at foot of James Bay.
        "Hanna" may have morphed from, "Havn."                  Norwegian for harbor.


     RIVER, 

            Attawapiskat into James Bay
                  Rand McNally Road Atlas
                        "Attawapiskat" in Old Norse meant,                             "There are wasps there."

          Chichewan into James Bay
                Bayly, 1680, Hudson Bay employees, Rich                 1960, p. 80, Now
                     "Chichewan" means, in Norwegian, "fast                       water." Now Albany.

      Ekwan into James Bay
               current maps.
                   "Ekwan" means, in Norwegian, "Ain't                           water."

      Moose into James Bay
           Bayly, 1680, Hudson Bay employees, Rich                  1960, p. 80, current
                Animal "Moose" may be named for River.                   River for mouse, "Mus."

    Nottaway into JamesBay
           Bayly, 1680, Hudson Bay employees, 
           Rich 1960, p. 80, current
               Nottaway morphed from "Nor's vege,", 
               for "The King's Way."

    Slood into James Bay
           Baley, 1679, Hudson Bay personnel, 
           Rich, 1960
               Slood, in Norwegian means "Sleet." Name                 there before the British.
              [The English called the River "Eastma
               River, perhaps to obscure the "East Main
                region, which was the region of the East
              men, the Norse Catholics.]

ORAL HISTORIES
     ABENAKI
          Brinton, c1885, p. 188, Sherwin, 1940, p. 337
                "Abnakis, meaning our ancestors at the east                 or dawn."

   LENAPE
         QUEBEC, Ottawa, 
               Commanda, McFadden, 1990.
                    Lenape admit that Vikings were among                       their ancestors.

      CHEYENNE
           LLEWELLYN and Hoebel, 1941
                 The Cheyenne ancestors came from an                         island in the East.

     CONOY
          Walam Olum, c1450, Hyde, 1962, p. 55.
                The Conoy ancestors lived "in the land of                     Snow and Ice."

     CREE
          Bial,, 2000
              The Ojibwa and Cree ancestors came from                    the East a thousand years ago.

     LENI LENAPE
          Paine, 2003
               Leni Lenapie had originally lived near Hrein                Island, Greenland.

     MAHIGAN
          Walam Olum, c1450, Hyde, 1962, p. 55.
               The Mahigan's ancestors came from a cold,                 snowy place

    NANTICOKE
          Walam Olum, c1450, Hyde, 1962, p. 55.
                 The Nanticoke ancestors lived "in the land                    of Snow and Ice."
    OJIBWA
          Mickenzie, Schoolcraft,, 1856 p. 19, Sherwin,             1940, p. 336.
                 "They [Ojibwa] originally came from      B                  another country."
.
    SHAWNEE
         Johnson, 1819, Fell, 1977, p. 279
              "Florida had been inhabited by white
              people, .."

           Johnson, 1819, Drake, 1858, Sherwin, 1940,                Fell, 1977, p. 279
               The Shawnee celebrated crossing the ice for                500 years.

     SNAKE PEOPLE
          Hopi myth, Ancient America, Vol. 10, #63
                Hopi tell of Snake people coming from
                the East.

PICTOGRAPHS
     MAALAN AARUM (a.k.a. WALAM OLUM)
         Historian, Author, c13560
               The Walam Olum, chap. 3, tells of migration                 from Greenland.

SAGAS
     ERIC RAUDES SAGA
          MAGNUSSON and PALSSON, 1966
                Eric Raudes Saga tells of Viking settlement                 driven away.

     GREENLAENDINGE
           MAGNUSSON and PALSSON, 1966
                The Greenlaendinge saga tells of Leif                            Erikson's visit.

Alban TRACKS of THINGS

FIBER
     HAT
           QUEBEC. Ottawa, Canada Art Museum, 2005
                 Micmac hood has eight St. Ninian's
                 Crosses.

         QUEBEC. Ottawa, Civ. of Man, Ottawa, 2005
                Six panel hat similar to Laplander hat.

     TAILS on MEN
           VIRGINIA, 
                  White, 1565. Dexter & Dexter, 1938,                                  McMasters & White drew men with                              tails similar to Cornwall carvings

IRON FORGES
      OHIO, Spruce Hill
           Porter, Mallery, 1951, p. 8 f.
                In the fall of 1951 we uncovered a Celtic                     furnace.

METAL
      SWORD
           Thomas, May, 1994, AA#6, p. 39
                 Sword has a circle cross typical of Alban's

PICTURE
      CROSS, eye
            Kane, 1851-56, Canada Art Museum, 2005
                 Kane's painting shows Cross with eye                          (Columba's)

DRESS
     SOUTH DAKOTA, 
          Mandan, Catlin, 1833, Holand, 1940, p. 270
               Women's dress has two eight-point
                compasses in the pattern.

FAIR HAIR
     SOUTH DAKOTA, Mandan, Catlin, 1833,                         Holand, 1940, p. 270
                 "..many whose skiNs are almost white,                          ..with blue eyes."

PLASA BIRD
     KANSAS, 
          Jim Mitchael, AAAPF conference, 2005                      AA#65, p. 18
              "identical similarity between Wales coat of                     arms and the Plasa Bird.

STONE
     CHAMBER
MASSACHUSETTS, 
      Upton, Barron, ABC, 1998, p. 59
            The chamber is built like some ancient                        ..Christian buildings.."

      DOLMEN
            MASSACHUSETTS, Hampton,
                 Whithall, Fell 1982, p. 59
                       Small Dolmen is similar to Dolmen on                         Orkney Island.

          MASSACHUSETTS, Lynn, 
               Whitall, Fell, 1982, p.66
                     Massive capstone similar to Dolmen at                        Trelleborg, Sweden.

        MASSACHUSETTS, Martha's Vineyard, 
        Gay Head,
                Hall,  Fell, 1982, p. 56
                       Dolmen is similar to Dolmen on                                    Orkney Islands

      MASSACHUSETTS, Westport,
            Fell, 1982, p. 57
                Two Dolmens are similar to a Dolmen on                      Orkney Island.

      MINNESOTA,Lake Lujenda,
             Harvey, Fell, 1982, p. 67
                  Massive capstone similar to Dolmen at                         Trelleborg, Sweden

      NEW HAMPSHIRE, 
           Bartlett, Brodner, Fell, 1982 p. 67
                 Massive capstone similar to Dolmen at                        Trelleborg, Sweden

      NEW YORK, North Salem, 
            Fell, 1982, p. 68
                  Massive 90 ton capstone similar to                               Dolmen at Trelleborg, Sweden

      VERMONT, (central), 
            Germano, Williams, Fell, 1982, p. 59
                 Collapsed Dolmen has inscription area                           similar to one in Scotland.

ENGRAVING
     ILLINOIS, Alton,
     Michael, 2005, AAAPF, AA#65, p. 18
          Plasa Bird carved on a high cliff over                           Mississippi is Wales Coat of Arms.

EQUINOX LIGHT ANIMATION
     OKLAHOMA, Anubis Cave, 
          Bell, Farley and McGlone, 1993, AA#65 2005
               Ogam inscriptions in the Gaelic language                     and Libyan writing.

FACE
      MASSACHUSETTS, Essex,
            1933, Peabody Museum, Fell 1982, p. 99
                 "Invites comparison with ..known Celtic                       sculpture."  Vannes, Brittany.

     MAINE, Searsmont,
            Bell, 1982, p. 98
                  Carved face of "Celt, executed in bedrock.

WOOD
     BOX
          ONTARIO, Micmac, 1858, 
                Canada Art Museum, 2005
                Micmac Box had St. Ninian's Cross
                w/Maltese Cross

     CROSS, St. Ninian's
           QUEBEC. Ottawa, Civ. Of Man, Ottawa, 2005
                A baby board has a St. Ninian's Cross in the                 design, 1800s

     HOUSE
          SOUTH DAKOTA, Mandan, Catlin, 1833,                        Maximilian, 1834, Holand, 278 f.
                         The Mandan house resembles ancient                          Alban housing."

Alban TRACKS of WORDS
MAPS
     ALBANIA
          Thompson, 1994, AA#6, p. 22
               "..Vinland, Greenland, and .. Albania are   
               shown.

ORAL HISTORIES
      ANCESTOR
             SOUTH DAKOTA, Mandan, 
                     Maximilian, 1834, Holand, 1940, p. 271
                          " ..early ancestor as being a white                                    man, who had come ,, in a big                                      canoe."

     CHRISTIAN BELIEFS
          SOUTH DAKOTA, Mandan, 
                Catlin, 1833, Maximilian, 1834, Holand,                     1940.
                      "..Mandans ..have been ..with ..people                          of Christian Practices."

     WAMPANOAG
          Manitonquat, 1994, p. 40.
               Manitonquat wrote of Wampanoag coming                  from Scotland via Iceland.  Even more
               impressive, the original Christians lived 
               in a city under a city.  There is only one
               known "city under a city."  
               That city is in TURKEY.


Ancient NORSE TRACKS in SOIL
DAMS
     UNGAVA
           QUEBEC, Ungava, Thomas Lee, 1968
                 Lee found a dam near the European Village                  at Payne Lake.

FOUNDATIONS
      MICHIGAN
            Roland, A.A. Vol. 10, #63 p. 36
                 A large town of foundations lies under                          wheat.

MOUNDS
       BURIAL
            OKLAHOMA, Spiro, 
                  Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 36
                       Vikings buried with armor the same as                            burial in Sipro Mounds.

           OKLAHOMA, Spiro,
                  Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 34
                      Earthen mound with clay under pallet                           similar to Norse

           OKLAHOMASpiro, 
                 Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 36
                      Swedish mounds were domed similar to                       Spiro Mounds.

          OKLAHOMA, Spiro,
                 Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 36
                      The north mound at Jelling has same                              layout as Spiro Mounds

      TENNESSEE, Bat Creek, 1889,
             Thomas, Gordon, 1972, McCulloch, 1998,
                  ",,skeletons were ..surrounded by dark                          covered earth."


Ancient NORSE TRACKS of BELIEF

MYTH
      SWASTIKA
           OKLAHOMA, Spiro, 
                 Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 37
                      Witchita spider story has parallels with                         Thor's flying hammer.


Ancient NORSE TRACKS of THINGS

METAL
      ARMOR
           OKLAHOMA,  Spiro, 
                Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 34
                      Copper breast plates, shields, armor lay                        in Norse-like grave.

AXE
     MASSACHUSETTS, Gloucester, 
           Fell, 1982, p. 177 Goodwin Collection,
                 Axe has Tinfinaa engravings

     NOVA SCOTIA, Cold Harbor,
          Fell, 1982, p. 177, Goodwin Collection,
                Axe has Tinfinaa engravings

COPPER
     OHIO, ingot, 4'x6'
           Fell, p. 165
                "Similar types occur ,, in other mound                           sites.." in OH, WV, IN, KN.
SHELLS
ENGRAVING
      OKLAHOMA,  Spiro,
            Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 37
                  Swastika disk at Spiro Mounds is similar                     to Norway metal disk.

      OKLAHOMA,  Spiro, 
           Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 34
                 "[engraved ..eye in hand motif with                               ..serpents"like Norway church."

      OKLAHOMA,  Spiro, 
           Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 34
                  "[engraved] ..beast physically conforms to                    its Norse counterpart."

      OKLAHOMA,  Spiro, 
           Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 36
                Engraving from Spiro Mounds is similar to                 Swedish portrayal of Odin.

      OKLAHOMA,  Spiro, 
            Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 37
                 Another Spiro Mound engraving may show                  a Viking ship.

      OKLAHOMA,  Spiro,
              Tynin, 1937, Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 37
                    The Bishop's plate engraving shows a                            man before an altar.

STONE
      CHAMBER
           CONNECTICUT, Groton, Gungywamp
                 Chamber with natural features is similar to                  Aarhum, Denmark.

          MASSACHUSETTS, Concord, 
               Fell, 1982 p. 74
                    Chamber with slab capstone is similar to                     Aarhum, Denmark.

          NEW YORK, North Salem, Mystery Hill                          Garfall, Fell, 1982, p. 77
                    Chamber with slab capstone is similar to                     Aarhum, Denmark.

          NEW YORK, North Salem, Mystery Hill,                         Garfall, Fell, 1982, p. 77
                     Underground chamber with massive                             capstone is similar to Aarhum,                                       Denmark.

        VERMONT, South Woodstock,
                Dix, Fell, 1982, p. 78
                      Chamber with earth mound is similar to                       Aarhum, Denmark.

      VERMONT,White River, (central) Vermont,                      Garfall, Fell, 1982, p. 76
                   Chamber with entrance block by earth                           slide is similar to Aarhum, Denmark.

      VERMONT, South Woodstock,
            Garfall, Fell, 1982, p. 76
                  Underground chamber is similar to one                         near Aarhum, Denmark.

ENGRAVING SITE
      ONTARIO, Petersborough, 1700 BC, 
             Craig, Phipps & Davis,1954,

 ENGRAVING, Ogam
      MINNESOTA,Deer Isle, Penobscot Bay, 
      Crow Point, 
            Pearson, 1957,
                "A sheltered island, where ships may lie in                    a harbor.
                Haakon bought his cog here."

RUNE STONE
     OKLAHOMA, Heavener: 
          Covey, 1994, Carlson, 1998
                 The Heavener runestone has 9th century                      runes.

     OKLAHOMA, Poteau. 
          Farley, 1951
               "Without question, these inscriptions are                        runic."

     OKLAHOMA, Shawnee. 
          Farley, 1951, 6 others, Carlson, 1998, ABC.
                "Without question, these inscriptions are                        runic."

TABLET
       MICHIGAN, 
            Roland, A.A. Vol. 10, #63 p. 36
                  Tablet tells of solar eclipse, July 27, 352.

WALL, dry stone
      VERMONT (central), 
            Germano, Fell, 1982, p. 75
                  Free standing wall is similar to those in                         western Scotland.

TRADE
      NETWORK
          OKLAHOMA, Spiro, 
               Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 36
                     Birka, Sweden, was trading hub similar                        to Spiro, OK.
         OKLAHOMA, Spiro,
              Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 34
                   Oklahoma sailors traded from Canada to                      eastern Mesoamerica.

WOOD
      BOW, compound
            QUEBEC, Ungava, 
                   Thomas Lee, 1968
                          A tip of a compound bow was found                             under a stone bench.

SHIPS
      OKLAHOMA,Spiro, 
            Joseph, 1994, AA#6, p. 34
                   "..people known to build and navigate 3-                       masted ships.


Mediterranean TRACKS of BELIEF
MYTHS
      RELATIONSHIPS
           Bierlein, 1994, p. 178.
                "..four parallel myths ,, Blackfoot, [& three                  from Mediterranean.

ENGRAVINGS
     PHOENICIAN
          NEW MEXICO. 
                 Hibben, 1936, Perkins, 1970, AA#65, 
                  pp.34-35
                        The letters carved on Mystery rock are                          Phoenician. Meaning is related.

     TABLETS
         MICHIGAN , 
                Worth, 1848, Scotfold, Savage, Soper,                         AA#65, pp. 20-21
                      "The [black] slate [of the tablets] does                            indeed come from Michigan."

FIBER
     CROSS, Maltese
           QUEBEC, Ottawa, Canada Art Museum, 2005
                    Sioux black wool suit with Maltese 
                    Sun Symbol

     DRESS
           QUEBEC, Ottawa, Civ. of Man, 2005
                  Sioux dress has Maltese Cross ornament.

           QUEBEC, Ottawa, Civ. of Man., 2005
                 Beaded dress has Greek Crosses and an                        Ankh symbol

GLOVE
           QUEBEC,Ottawa, Civ. Of Man, Ottawa, 2005
                 Glove has Greek cross and eight point                           compass

GLASS
      CROSS, Greek
           QUEBEC, Ottawa, Civ, of Man. Ottawa, 2005
                  Moccasins have Greek crosses in bead                         work.

METAL
     AXES, bronze
          CONNECTICUT, 
                Essen, Fell, 1997, p. 127
                     Compares favorably to Iberian axe from                      Sanlvcar Spain.

        CONNECTICUT, Windsor, 
             Fell, 1997, p. 127
                  Compares favorably to Iberian axe from                       Porto Portugal.

       MASSACHUSETTS, 
            Gill, Fell, 1997, p. 127
                 Compares favorably to Iberian axe from                      Rondo La Viega.

          VERMONT, 
               Milton, Fell, 1997, p. 127
                   Compares favorably to Iberian axe from                      Les Miltares.

      BRONZE knives
            MASSACHUSETTS, Milbury, 
                 Fell, 1997, p. 127
                        Compares favorably to knife from                                 Caimbra, Portugal

           MASSACHUSETTS,  Pepperell, 
                Fell, 1997, p. 127
                    Compares favorably to knife from                                 Alcala, Portugal

          MAINE, Monhegan, 
               Fell, 1997, p. 127
                      Compares favorably to knife from                                  Palmela, Portugal

         VERMONT, Swanton, 
               Fell, 1997, p. 127
                    Compares favorably to knife from Vila                         Nova, Portugal

BRONZE, needles
      CONNECTICUT, Plantsville, 
             Fell, 1997, p. 127.
                 Compares favorably to Iberian needle from                  Palmela, Portugal.

      MAINE, Andover, 
            Fell, 1997, p. 127
               Compares favorably to Iberian needle from                  El argar, Spain.

      MAINE, Marrimanport, 
           Fell, 1997, p. 127
              Compares favorably to Iberian needle from                 El argar, Spain.

     VERMONT, Swanton, 
            Fell, 1997, p. 127
                 Compares favorably to Iberian needle from                  Car Mona.

BRONZE, rings
     TENNESSEE Bat Creek, 1889, 
            Thomas, Gordon, 1972, McCulloch, 1998,
                  "They were a popular ornament in the                           MediterraneanWorld."

     WEST VIRGINIA, Moundsville, 1838, 
            Fell, 1997, p. 166.
                "..copper armbands, resembling those of the                   Egyptian Bronze Age."

     WEST VIRGINIA, Moundsville, 1838, 
          Fell, 1997, p. 166.
                " ..found ..at a depth of 60 feet.." [beside                           Iberian tablet.]

BRONZE, spear point
       MICHIGAN, Peterson, 2001, AA#65, p. 19
             [Peterson found] " ..ancient copper tools and                spear points."

COINS
     ARKANSAS, 
             Farley, 1998, ABC, p. 241.
                   " ..an ancient Carthaginian coin, with the                         ..portrait of Tanit."

     DC, Washington, Potomac, 
            Chicago Tribune, 1987, Raffinnison,
                  "..Icelandic women buried in 1051 with                          ..roman coins."

     NEW JERSEY, Sandy Hook, 
         A.A. Vol. 10, #63, p. 35
                   Eight Roman coins dated between
                   331-383

METAL MEDALLION
     MICHIGAN, 1929, 
           AA#50, 2003, AA#65 p. 33
               Token found on Isle Royale was made in                       India between 700 & 1300 AD

TANIT
     OHIO, 
     Birsko, Farley, 1998, ABC, p. 241.
           "Two images ..cut from sheet copper ..in an                     ..Indian mound.
"
PICTURE
      CROSS, Maltese
          QUEBEC. Ottawa, Canada Art Museum, 2005 
                Kane, 1851-56,
                      Kane's Horse racing shows two Maltese                       Crosses

          QUEBEC. Ottawa, Canada Art Museum, 2005
                Kane, 1851-56,
                       Kane's Scalp Dance shows two Maltese                       Crosses.

        QUEBEC. Ottawa, Canada Art Museum, 2005                     Paul Kane 1851-56,
                      Painting of Scalp Dance shows two                               Maltese Sun Symbols.

PLANTS
     CORN
            India, 4 temples, Johannesen, ABC, 1998,                   p.110f.
                  "Indians ..must have had early sailing                             contact with the Americans .."

SHELL
       TANIT
             OKLAHOMA, Spiro, 
                  Fell, 1980, Farley, 1998, ABC, p. 242.
                        "... a native ..boat bears three symbols                             of Tanit."

STONE
     ENGRAVING
           MASSACHUSETTS, Bourne, Aptueset stone,                 Strandwold, 1948, Fell. 1997. p.
                     " ..Iberian inscription.." Transcription,                          "..Hanno takes possession”

     MICHIGAN, Grand Traverse Bay, 1870,                            Ramsdell, Parker, Buchanan,
                "..there is little likely hood ..that ,,America                     ever [had] isolation.

     OHIO, Piqua, 
           Moorehead, ?, Landsverk, 1974, Carlson,                    1998, ABC,
                "..the roots are to be found either in                                 Mediterranean ,,
"
     OKLAHOMA, Bache, 
               Farley, Fell, p. 160.
                    "The South Iberian script reads from                               right to left.."

     OKLAHOMA, Pontotoc,
            Farley, Scott, Fell, 1977, p. 159
                 "..the work of early Iberiean colonist in                        America."

     TENNESSEE, Bat Creek, 1889, 
            Gordon, 1972, McCulloch, 1998, ABC,
                 "No one has ,,made a better ..suggestion ..                     \[Paleo-Hebrew]

    WEST VIRGINIA, (central), 
           Strandwold, 1948, Carlson, 1998
                "..the roots are to be found either in                                 Mediterranean .."

    WEST VIRGINIA, Grave Creek, 1838,
           Fell, 1977, p. 21
                "..studies show the language ..is Punic                        (Phoenician)."

    WEST VIRGINIA, Grave Creek, 
           Schoolcraft, 1824, 2 others, Carlson, 1998
                "..Fell describes .. It as an Iberian                                  inscription written in Phoenician."

    WEST VIRGINIA, Grave Creek,
           Strandwold, 1948, Fell, 1977, p. 158.
                  "..it is clearly related to the Iberian culture                   of Moundville."

ENGRAVINGS
     OKLAHOMA, panhandle, Anubis Caves,
           Farley, 1978, Fell, 1985a,
                Five caves with equinox markings also                         include Anubis, Egyptian God.

FIGURINE
     MISSOURI, Belmont, 
          Foster, 1873, Prehistoric Races of the United
          States.
                A captive is shown bound with a rope tying                 elbows behind back.

     OHIO, Newark, 
           Wryck, 1860, AA #65 2005
                Carving of Moses with the Ten                                     Commandments is a prayer aid.

RIVER REDBANK, 
       10 mi so. Sandyhook, NJ, A.A.#63
                 Figurine of man and women estimated                          from 200 AD.

MARKS
      ONTARIO, Peterborough, 
           Fell, 1982-89, Kelly, ABC, p. 170f
                  "..inscriptions of Peterborough,                                      Scandinavia, and Italy are .words.";

STONE
     SLATE SLAB
         IOWA. Davenport, 
               Gass, 1874, Putnam Museum 
               AR15339, Fell,
                    "It seems clear that Iberian ..speakers 
                     were living in Iowa.
"
SUNDIAL MOLD (?)
     OHIO, Smith, 1077, AA#65, p. 18
          " ..unusual stone ..resembling a colossal                           arrowhead ..mold for sundial

TABLET
     NEW YORK, Long Island, Eagle Neck, 1888, 
         Fell, 1977, p. 270
              "..the Libyan inscription, ..matches the                         Egyptian ..not .forged."

TANIT
     CALIFORNIA, Joshua Tree Park, 
           Farley, 1998, ABC p. 242.
               "A small petroglyph of a Tanit-like figure                    was photographed."

     CALIFORNIA, Owens Valley, 
          Farley, 1998, ABC p. 243.
               Farley found Tanit figures in two locations.

     COLORADO, Farley, 1974,1998, ABC, p. 242.
           "The first image of Tanit ..recorded in                          America."

     KANSAS, 
            Farley, 1998, ABC, p. 241.
                 " ,,on a cliff side in Kansas north of the                           Arkansas River."

    LOUISIANA, 
         Hornbeck, Sandell, 1980, Farley, 1998,
         ABC p. 243.
              Boulder with Tanit " ..had been sticking out                 of a reservoir clay bank ..."
     NORTH CAROLINA, 
          Jolley, 1990, Farley, 1998, ABC, p. 240.
               "..Tanit found ..on a vertical stone surface                    ..near ,,two rivers,"

     NEW MEXICO, 
          Patterson, Farley, 1998, ABC p. 242.
               " ..an image of Tanit within a radiant circle."

    NEVADA, 
         Farley, 1998, ABC, p. 241
              " ,,in a Nevada petrograph."

    OKLAHOMA,
         Farley, 1995, 1998, ABC p. 242.
              "..a lovely petrograph of Tanit with legs and                   feet."

    OKLAHOMA, 
          Farley, 1998, ABC, p. 241.
               " ..in eastern Oklahoma in a dry creek bed,"

    TENNESSEE, 
          Fell, 1991, Farley, 1998, ABC, p. 241.
               "..her image is .. Incised on ..an 
                Indian pipe."

     VERMONT, 1975, 
           Farley, 1998, ABC, p. 240.
                Tanit was found in a megalith chamber in                     Vermont.

STONE
      WAND, ritual ceremonial
           Capps, 2005, AA#65 p. 22
                  [This wand]" ..associate[s] with similar                          pieces from Mediterranean."

STREETS
      OHIO, Spruce Hill
           Foster, 1811, Mallery, 1951, p. 2
                "The streets are in regular squares."


Mediterranean TRACKS of WORDS
HISTORY
     ATLANTIC, west
         Herodotus, c 480 B.C. Trento, 1978,
         McGlone and Leonard,
             "..Phoenician trading customs beyond the                    Pillars of Hercules."

       Avienus, 450 B.C. Trento, 1978,
       McGlone and Leonard,
           ".. Himileo ..originated ..Cornish tin-route via               the Atlantic."

    Plato 400 B.C.
          Trento, 1978, McGlone and Leonard, 1986,
                "Writes of ..Atlantis and other continents                     beyond."

          Theopompus, 378 B.C. 
                Trento, 1978, McGlone and Leonard,
                      " ..describes an island of immense size                         out in the ocean."

          Aristotle, 360 B.C. 
               Trento, 1978, McGlone and Leonard,
                     " ..country outside [Gibraltar] is fertile,                           well rooted, fruited .."

          Sirabo, 100 B.C. 
              Trento, 1978, McGlone and Leonard, 1986,
                    " Speaks of ..traffic outside [Gibraltar]                          and hints of circumnavigation,"

         Diodorus, 21 B.C. 
              Trento, 1978, McGlone and Leonard, 1986,
                   "..Phoenicians had discovered ..long ago                       but ..kept ..secret."

       Seneca, 30 
            Trento, 1978, McGlone and Leonard, 1986,                 Table I.
                  " ..there might be land on the other side of                      the Atlantic."

      Mela 44, 
           Trento, 1978, McGlone and Leonard, 1986,                  Table I
                "Reports that "Indians" had been ..cast on                       the shores of Germany,"

    Plutarch, 70, 
         Trento, 1978, McGlone and Leonard, 1986,
             "Far west in the ocean ..stretches a great                       continent."

      Pausanias 150, 
           Trento, 1978, McGlone and Leonard, 1986,
                 "West of the Atlantic ..inhabitants are red                    skinned."

      Aelianus, 200, 
           Trento, 1978, McGlone and Leonard, 1986,
                 "..Phoenicians ..[had] common knowledge                      of a "huge" Island.."
      Proctus, 440, 
          Trento, 1978, McGlone and Leonard, 1986,
                " ,,inscriptions often found on pillars told of                    the history of the people."

LANGUAGE
      EGYPTIAN, Micmac, 
           Maillard, 1865, Fell, 1977, p. 280
                Maillard preserved Micmac symbols                             showing Egypt contact.

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